Paper That Defines Real Virtual Worlds: 3D3C

This is a PDF version of a paper that was published as part the book “New Media and Innovative Technologies” from the The Hubert Burda Center for Innovative Communications at Ben Gurion University of the Negev.

This paper is the first official version of the 3D3C definition for Real Virtual Worlds. Here is the abstract:


The Metaverse is described as a three-dimensional world in which human characters spend their time, play, work and live. A definition for the Metaverse is proposed – 3D3C: 3D for the three Dimensions of this interactive world and 3C for “Community” in which people connect with one another, “Creation” that allows people to express themselves and “Commerce” that links real monetary value to actions in this world. This study assesses several Metaverse phenomena as manifested in the Second Life environment: Social structures, Griefers, commercial data, real businesses, ceremonies and real experiences, comparing them with parallel phenomena of World of Warcraft. The Metaverse is then mapped into the conventional course of technology development (invention, realization, excitement and aversion, maturity and transparency), leading to the conclusion that a new medium is born.

Download the paper here.
See also an on-line video discussion.

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